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In accountancy, an account means an individual budget item

Account class

Account classes are categories of budget items (accounts) that can contain both expenses and revenue.

Assessment (Health Promotion/Prevention)

To measure and analyze health-related problems in a population.

Assessment (Quality development)

The systematic assessment of structures, processes and outcomes of an organization or organizational unit, a programme or a project.

Assessment quality

The assessment quality of a project is high if both normative (objective) and felt (subjective) needs are substantiated, if the context of the project is taken into account thus allowing the project to be well integrated in its social environment.

Behaviour - living conditions

Human behaviour and life circumstances are intimately linked and have strong mutual influences. Health promotion aims at enabling individuals, groups and organizations to shape their behaviour and their circumstances in such a way as to be beneficial to their health and quality of life.


To measure or assess products, services and processes in comparison with the acknowledged leaders in the field in order to learn from the 'best' (quality development).


The formal acknowledgement that an organization (-al unit) fulfils the conditions linked to certification. Certification is carried out by an accredited organization.


Complexity implies diversity and multi-dimensionality. In contrast to complicated systems (e.g. technical equipment), complex systems, such as social systems, are not entirely predictable and calculable.


The framework within which a project, for example, takes place and by which it is affected (e.g. political, legal, social / cultural, economic, environmental and institutional factors).

Contractual objectives

Contractually binding project objectives and intermediate objectives.


Controlling of processes and activities on the basis of a target-performance analysis.

Desired value

When a project objective is operationalized, the desired value is a quantitative measure to which one aspires and is associated to an indicator. It is set on the basis of the actual value.

Determinants of Health

Scientifically documented factors influencing the health of individuals, groups or populations are called Health Determinants. However, the expression "determinants" is ill chosen in this context. While health is influenced by these factors, it is not determined by them in the sense of 'absolute certainty'.


Changes in settings due to interventions. Apart from intended effects, which are described in the objectives, unintentional positive or negative changes (side-effects) are often observed.


Adequacy of a measure in terms of its intended effect.


The relation between a result and the means employed to achieve it.


Reinforcement of the ability of individuals or groups to make decisions and have control over decisions and actions affecting their health, including opportunities to shape their own environments and the conditions which have an impact on health.

European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM)

The founder of the EFQM-model, a European quality management system based on TQM (Total Quality Management).


The systematic collection and analysis of information not routinely available about the different aspects of a project or an intervention and its critical appraisal; taking into account different perspectives and applying adequate (social-) scientific research methods and theories.

Evaluation (external)

The systematic appraisal of an issue from an external point of view (e.g. through professional evaluators).

Financial backers

Institutions providing funds for a project and usually making certain demands on the project (see 'Stakeholders') which are agreed by contract.


As distinct from 'sex' (which is biological), gender usually refers to psychological or socially/culturally constructed characteristics which are then attributed to the different biological sexes. It also refers to the relationship between the two sexes.

Gesundheitskompetenz (health literacy)

Gesundheitskompetenz (health literacy) ist die Fähigkeit (Wissen, Können und Motivation) des Einzelnen, im täglichen Leben Entscheidungen zu treffen, die sich positiv auf die Gesundheit auswirken – zu Hause, am Arbeitsplatz, im Gesundheitssystem und in der Gesellschaft ganz allgemein. Gesundheitskompetenz befähigt Personen zur Selbstbestimmung und zur Übernahme von Gestaltungs- und Entscheidungsfreiheit bezüglich ihrer Gesundheit. Sie ermöglicht, Gesundheitsinformationen zu finden, zu verstehen, zu bewerten und in Handeln umzusetzen.


Die Gesundheitsversorgung umfasst alle Massnahmen, die durch Gesundheitseinrichtungen und Gesundheitsfachleute zugunsten von Patientinnen und Patienten erbracht werden.

Guiding principles - charter

A charter describes the guiding principles of an organization, including mission statement, values and norms. The organization's activities (internal and external) will be guided by this document.


Health is a state of equilibrium between factors conducive to health and those which influence health in a negative way. Health means that people are able to mobilize and use their resources in the best possible way in order to face up to both personal (physical and mental) and external (social and material) demands.

Health equity

Equity in health means that all people, irrespective of ethnic or socio-economic status, sex or age, have equal opportunity to develop and maintain health through fair and just access to resources for health.

Health Promotion

Health promotion is the process of enabling individuals, groups and organizations to maintain and improve the factors for health by changes in lifestyle and environment. Health promotion not only embraces actions directed at strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals, but also action towards changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to improve their impact on public and individual health.


Längerfristige Gesamtwirkung einer Vielzahl von Interventionen auf übergeordneter, gesellschaftlicher Ebene. Eine einzelne Intervention liefert einen begrenzten und in der Regel nicht exakt bestimmbaren Beitrag zu dieser Gesamtwirkung.

-> In Abgrenzung zum Output und zum Outcome.


Implementation of measures in settings with regular, critical reflection of the concept, resulting in continuous development and improvement of the project.


An indicator is a dimension that can be measured, observed and analyzed by empirical methods. Indicators serve as surrogate measures when assessing (usually complex) phenomena that cannot be directly quantified or evaluated.

Information management

The maintenance and enlargement of the total existing knowledge base in an organization.


Entwickeln und Umsetzen von neuen Lösungen für gesundheitliche Herausforderungen und Probleme. Dazu gehören z.B. die Bearbeitung neuer Themen, die Entwicklung und der Einsatz von neuen Methoden und Instrumenten (z. B. digitale Anwendungen), die Ansprache von neuen Zielgruppen oder das Schliessen von Lücken in bestehenden Angeboten.


Finanzielle, personelle und materielle Ressourcen, die für eine Intervention eingesetzt werden. vgl. auch Ressourcen

International Organization for Standardisation (ISO)

ISO is the international organization dedicated to the standardisation of products, services and management systems.


Interprofessionalität bedeutet, dass Fachleute aus unterschiedlichen Professionen koordiniert und zielgerichtet zusammenarbeiten und die Blickwinkel der je anderen Professionen in ihre eigenen Konzepte miteinbeziehen. -> Interprofessionalität geht über Multiprofessionalität hinaus und beinhaltet eine gelebte Kooperation verschiedener Fachdisziplinen und Berufsgruppen auf Augenhöhe.


In prevention and health promotion, interventions are understood to be measures which aim at changing people's environments in order to maintain or improve health or to avoid ill-health. They must be based on scientific and professional criteria, and embrace a systematic and participatory approach.


Exchange of experiences between professionals from different organizations, programmes and projects, but fulfilling a similar role or function.


Vorübergehender Zusammenschluss mehrerer rechtlich und wirtschaftlich selbständig bleibender Partner und Organisationen zur zeitlich begrenzten Durchführung eines (vertraglich) vereinbarten Zwecks.

Levels of action

System levels where interventions in settings can take place: individual, group, organization, environment/networks, society/political level.


The totality of activities for the systematic planning and managing of a project, a programme or an organization.


Concrete activities derived from a strategy, with clearly defined time points and responsabilities, with the aim of achieving project goals and (intermediate) objectives.


A systematic approach for carrying out a task or to gain knowledge.


Migration refers to the migratory movements of population groups. In the context of health promotion, to consider the migratory aspect refers to the need of giving adequate consideration to the specific challenges of migrants.


Milestones are breakpoints in the implementation phase of a project. Milestones divide a project into several stages (of roughly equal length) and are a useful project management tool. The name is derived from the literal meaning: every mile a stone.


Continuous or periodic systematic data collection used for checking processes and results.


Multiprofessionalität steht für eine (Team-)Konstellation, in der mehrere unterschiedliche Professionen vertreten sind.

-> In Abgrenzung zur Interprofessionalität erfordert Multiprofessionalität nicht zwingend eine Koordination.

Need (felt/expressed)

Contrary to a normative need, a felt need is the subjective need that members of a certain setting or population group feel and sometimes express (the users' perspective).

Need (normative/objective)

Need defined by experts or professionals, usually on the grounds of a scientifically substantiated deficiency in certain settings or population groups (the experts' perspective).

Last modification: 03 March, 2020 08:12